Know About History Of India – Indian History
History Of India or Indian History begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization and the coming of the Aryans. These two phases are usually described as the Pre-Vedic and Vedic ages. So that it also called Hinduism arose in the Vedic period. The history of India is very vast we cannot describe the whole history of India, but we try to cover up most of the topic in this blog. Basically history of India is divided into three parts is Ancient, Midviel, and Modern History.
In this blog, we try to give you information about the history of India or Indian History. We know that India is a very great country and we love its tradition, culture and its foods, in this blog we try to give you all the information.
Before we know about the History of India, firstly we look at some facts about India.
As we know that India is the second-most populous country in South Asia and it is the seventh-largest country by land area and it is also the most popular democracy all over the world.
It is enclose by the Indian oceans of the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest also the Bay of Bengal in the southeast, India shares its borders with Pakistan in the west, China, Nepal in the north and Bangladesh, Myanmar in the east, and Sri Lanka in the southeast.
History Behind the Name Of Bharat And India
History Behind The Name Of:-
BHARAT – The republic of India has two names Bharat and India, the name Bharat is arises from the son of Dushyant or the son of Rishabh BHARAT.
INDIA – The name India arises from the river (Indus River). The name India derives ultimately from Sanskrit Sindhu, which was the name of the Indus River as well as the lower Indus basin (modern Sindh, in Pakistan). Jambudvīpa, AI Hind, Hindustan, and Aryavarta are also the names of India.
Parts Of India’s History
Basically, the History of India is divide into three parts which are:-
- Ancient India
- Medieval India
- Modern India
Now let’s take a look at types of the Indian history
The history of Ancient India starts from the birth of the Indus valley civilization, and the coming of the Aryans. These phases are describe as pre-Vedic and Vedic ages. It has been started in 2,500 BC in the western part of South Asia. Mohenjo Daro and Harappa are the towns of Indus Valley Civilization.
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus valley civilization is between 2,600 BCE to 1900 BCE, where people is about 40,000-50000 in the city. It had an advanced and flourishing economic system. The houses of these towns are well planned and well designed made of baked bricks. Unearthing of these two towns shows the richness of the Indus Valley Civilization. Unearthing is the evidenced in ruins and things like household articles, war weapons, gold and silver ornament
In ancient India, the two cities MOHAN JODARO and HARRAPA are famous. These two cities were set up by Brunt brick and stone. the name of India which is in the Sanskrit word jambudvipa mention in the Ancient Indian scriptures. Harappa civilization covers about 640 km of northwest Pakistan in the Punjab provinces. The history of Ancient India begins with the Indus valley civilization (Harappa civilization).
The Harappa site was first briefly excavated by Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1872-73. Two decades after brick robbers carried off the visible remains of the city. He found an Indus seal of unknown origin. The first extensive excavation at Harappa starts by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni in 1920. In 1912, Harappan seals with then-unknown symbols discover by J. Fleet, which triggered an excavation campaign under Sir John Marshall in 1921/22, resulting in the discovery of a hitherto unknown civilization by Dayaram Sahni.
Mohan Jodaro discovers by R.D. Banerji in 1922, an archeologist’s first visit to Mohan Jodaro in 1921, this city is located in Pakistan’s Sindh provinces in Southern Pakistan. Mohan Jodaro lies on the plain surface on the west of the Indus River, Sindhu, Pakistan, Mohan Jodaro covers about 80 km off the southwest of the Sukkur. Mohan Jodaro divides into two parts Citadel and Lower Town, the area is at the top of the mountain is 12 meters high.
- Citadel area is use for the social and religious gatherings, also for administrative activities, the Citadel area is also has a Stupa which is on the top of the mountain, it also have a assembly hall which people comes to social gatherings.
- It contains a pool which known as the Great bath and had steps to leading down the both sides.
The eastern part of the city is famous as the lower town. It has the most number of the houses which has 7 rooms and built around the coke yard. These houses have different rooms for different activities, the single and double type of houses. The streets of the lower town in the great light pattern into setting each other perpendicularly.
All the streets and lanes across neighborhoods in Mohenjo-Daro had drained. There was also a system for managing wastewater inside the houses with vertical pipes in the walls that led to chutes opening onto the street, as well as drains from bathing floors that flowed towards the street drains. The street drains were typically made of baked brick, with special shaped bricks to form corners. The bricks were closely fitted and sealed with mud mortar. 700 private wells are in Mohan Jodaro for the people Access to clean the water
In Mohan Jodaro some numerous objects are famous such as seated and stranded figures, copper and stone tools, carved seals, balance scales and weights, pieces of jewelry, and children’s toys. Different seals are also suggesting it rise and trade and some figures indicate its religious symbols. Mohan Jodaro destroys by the flood of the Indus River, the river changed its coasts, and people run away from Mohan Jodaro.
After the era of Indus Valley Civiization the next will be Vedic Civilization. It flourishing along the river Saraswati, named after the Vedas. It depict the early literature of the Hindus. The two greatest epics of this period were the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
The next era is the Buddhist Era, It takes place during the time of the Mahajanapadas. During the 7th and the 6th centuries, BC Mahajanpedas was the sixteen great powers. Prominent powers at the time were the Sakyas of Kapilavastu and the Licchavis of Vaishali. Siddhartha Gautam who becomes Buddha. He was born in Lumbini near Kapilavastu. He was the founder of Buddhism – a religion based on spiritualism. Buddha died at the age of 80 in 480 BC but his teachings spread throughout southern and eastern Asia and are follow across the world today.
The Invasion of Alexander
In 326 BC when Alexander invaded India, he crossed the Indus river and defeated the Indian rulers in battle. The best part of war is the use of elephants by Indians, the people of Macedonians had never seen before. Alexander then took over the lands of the defeated kings.
The Gupta Dynasty
The Gupta period has been famous as the Golden Age of Indian history. When Chandragupt I married the daughter of the chief of the ‘Licchavis’, he gets the gift of Pataliputra in dowry. He started to lay down the foundation of his empire, which extended from the river Ganges to the city of Allahabad. He rule for 15 years and was also refer to as the ‘king of kings’.
The kingdom of Harshavardhana was the last ancient kingdom in India. Harshavardhana ascended the throne at Thanneshwar and Kannauj after his brother died. He is defeated by Chalukya Kingdom of Deccan India. Harshavardhana was famous for establishing relations with the Chinese, and also for strong administrative capabilities and having high religious tolerance.
First, we know about what is medieval period:
The Medieval period is that period which is between the Ancient and Modern periods of history. Each period covers many centuries and India witnessed, the Medieval Period is that when people start social, economic, political, and religious things.
Here are the two types of the medieval period is:–
- Early Medieval
- Late Medieval
Early Medieval Period
The Early Medieval period starts from 8 century to 12 century; It covers south as well as North India. The dynasties of the medieval period are:-
Pratihara dynasty was the last largest dynasty of northern India. It rivaled the Gupta empire in extent and ruled most parts of India. This dynasty ruled from the 6th-century up to the 11th century. Kannuaj and were the first Rajput empire are the capital of this dynasty. They can be differentiated from other kingdoms as they were called Imperial Pratiharas.
Most of the western Deccan and some of South India were ruled by Chalukyas. It ruled between the 6th to 12th centuries.
The Pallavas dynasty was the ruler of the Telugu and Telugu areas. It ruled from the 6th to 9th centuries
Pala Empire was the last major Buddhist ruler. It ruled from the 8th to 12th centuries in Bengal. Briefly controlled most of north India in the 9th century.
Rashtrakutas dynasty was a Kannada Dynasty. It was ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the 6th and the 10th centuries. and one who built the World Heritage center in Ellora, Maharashtra.
In the 9th century AD, the Cholas were the most important rulers of this time. Their kingdom covered a large part of South India, including Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
They are powerful ruling dynasties during this period. In the Medieval Period, people have started the Field of Art, Languages, religious things, etc. The medieval period witnessed the impact of other religious cultures of India.
Late Medieval Period
The late medieval period lasted from the 13th century to the 18th century, this period covers the TURKS, AFGHANS, and MUGHALS. The foreign invaders attacked India and they ruled in India in the medieval period. In the Medieval period, the Mughals and Delhi sultanate refer as Hindustan. The death of the last Mughal King, Aurangzeb, started disintegration within India. Influencers of Islamic architecture in India, the Mughal kings are still looked back in awe. Some of the important topics of the late medieval period are:-
The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate continuously – the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, and the Lodi dynasty. It is based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526). It covered large swathes of territory in modern-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh as well as some parts of southern Nepal
Multan and Bengal were the first territories to break away from the Delhi Sultanate, after the end of the Sultanate Period. They declared independence and many other territories in the Deccan region rose to power. In 1336 A.D Vijayanagar City was found by Harihara and Bukka on the southern banks of Tungabhadra. They made Hampi as the capital city.
Bhakti and Other Cultural & Religious Movements
This movement referred to many rites and rituals associated with the worship of God by Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs of the Indian subcontinent, like – Kirtan at a Hindu Temple, Singing of Gurbani at a Gurdwara, and Qawaali at a Dargah (by Muslims),.
Mughal and Sur rule and the Arrival of Europeans
The Mughal Empire was one of the greatest empires ever in India. The Mughal Empire ruled hundreds of millions of people. India became united under one rule and had very prosperous cultural and political years during the Mughal rule. There were many Muslim and Hindu kingdoms that split all throughout India until the founders of the Mughal Empire came. Mughal emperors are:-
- Sher Shah Suri
- Shah Jahan
The history of Modern India starts from the mid 18th century after the medieval period of India. The culture of modern India is combined with the traditional Indian culture. Modern Indian History is considered the history from 1850 onwards. A major part of Modern Indian History was occupied by the British Rule in India. The father of modern India is Raja Ram Mohan Roy, he influences people for Studies, politics, and public administration.
The death of the Aurangzeb in 1707 mark the beginning of the modern period of India. In the late 18th century, the British have established their rules for 200 years and they brought social, political, and economic changes.
The Decline of the Mughal Empire
The great Mughal Empire, the envy of its contemporaries, for almost two centuries, declined and disintegrated during the first hair of the 18th century. The Mughal Emperors lost their power and glory and their empire shrank to a few
square miles around Delhi.
Indian States and Society in the 18th Century
On the debris of the Mughal Empire and its political system arose a large number of independent and semi-independent powers such as Bengal, Avadh, Hyderabad, Mysore, and the Maratha Kingdom. It is these powers that challenged the British attempt at supremacy in India in the second half of the 18th century. Some arose as a result of the assertion of autonomy by governors of Mughal provinces, others were the product of rebellion against Mughal authority. The rulers of these states established law and order and viable economic and administrative states
18th Century Revolts and Reform
The Revolt of 1857, also regarded as India’s First War of Independence is an extremely important event in Indian history. In this article, we have summarized the causes, impact, importance, and outcomes of the revolt.
Indian National Movement
In the modern period of India, there is a movement called Indian National Movement after the British rule finished. Some of the names of the Indian national movement are:-
- Non-Cooperation Movement
- Civil Disobedience Movement
- Quit India Movement
- Jallianwala Bagh Massacre: Causes & its Impact
- The Moderate: Meaning and their Works
- The Extremist and Partition of Bengal
- Anti-Rowlatt Satyagraha
- Swadeshi Movement
- Quit India movement
The history of the early modern period of India had witnessed the many rise and fall of many empires. In the early modern period of India the history of India mark by the advent of the Mughal empire in the 16th century. The features of early modern India are – Art, music, literature, political theory, science, religious reforms, and many more things.
In the early modern period, India became the biggest global and manufacturing power and India’s GDP is superior to Europe’s GDP.
History refers to the past, and the past of India is not so small. In the above blog, we try to give you some information about India. As we see in the blog about the history of India. Basically history of India is divide into three categories is Ancient, Medieval, and Modern history. Here we try to give you details or reasons behind the name of Bharata and India. Mohan Jodaro and Harappa civilization are also parts of Indian History.
As we know that the name India is very vast in itself, it cannot be described in one blog, so we try to cover up some of the topics. We learn about the parts of the history of India and many more things. We hope you like the blog, please visit our website aboutindia.in for gathering information about India.